设为首页 | 加入收藏   QQ群:85948383/120409214   微信公共账号:plan1000
注册 | 登录
千人计划网人物库频道声明
  人物库频道是一个开放的“海归人物”数据库,范围不限于千人计划专家,内容由个人上传提供,旨在构建一个涵盖生物医药与生物技术,能源、资源与环境,经济、金融与管理,信息科学与技术,高新技术产业,工程与材料,化学化工,数学物理等领域的海归人物展示平台,信息真实性及准确性由信息上传者个人负责。
人物库 >>所属分类 >> 经济、金融与管理   

甘犁

标签: 甘犁,千人计划,长江学者

顶[0] 发表评论(0) 编辑词条
目录

[显示全部]

个人简介编辑本段回目录

国家“千人计划”特聘专家、教育部“长江学者”、四川省“百人计划”特聘专家;美国德克萨斯农工大学经济系终身教授、西南财经大学经济与管理研究院院长、中国家庭金融调查与研究中心主任。

工作经历编辑本段回目录

现任职务:

· 西南财经大学经济与管理研究院,教授,院长

· 西南财经大学中国家庭金融调查与研究中心主任

· 美国克萨斯农工大学经济系,讲席教授,硕士研究生项目负责人

· 美国国民经济研究局,高级研究员

· 美国德克萨斯农工大学民营企业中心,研究员

曾任职务:

·  2005-2011年:美国德克萨斯农工大学经济系,副教授

·  1998-2005年:美国德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校经济系,助理教授

·  2010年:中国长江商学院经济系,访问副教授

·  2004-2013年:美国国民经济研究局研究员

学术荣誉编辑本段回目录

·  2001年,德克萨斯大学人文学院拉波波特王奖

·  2006年,中国教育部“长江学者”讲座教授

·  2007年,德克萨斯农工大学经济系优秀研究生导师

·  2011年,中组部“千人计划”入选者

·  2011年,获得《Economic Inquiry》最佳论文奖

教育经历编辑本段回目录

·  1982-1987年:清华大学信息管理学院,学士

·  1990-1993年:美国加州大学欧文分校经济学,研究生学习

·  1993-1998年:美国加州大学伯克利分校统计学,硕士

·  1993-1998年:美国加州大学伯克利分校经济学,博士

主讲课程编辑本段回目录

·  概率论与数理统计(博士课程)

·  计量经济学(博士课程)

·  应用微观经济学(博士课程)

·  公共经济学(博士课程)

·  论文写作(硕士课程)

·  中级宏观经济学(本科课程)

·  初级宏观经济学(本科课程)

学术成果编辑本段回目录

▶英文论文

1.Deng, Guoying, Li Gan, and Manuel A. Hernandez. “Do natural disasters cause an excessive fear of heights? Evidence from the Wenchuan earthquake.” Forthcoming, Journal of Urban Economics.

2.Gan, Li, and Qi Li. “Efficiency of Think and Thick Markets.” Forthcoming, Journal of Econometrics.

3.Huang, Feng, and Li Gan. “Impact of China’s Urban Employees Basic Medical Insurance on Health Care Expenditure and Health Outcomes.” Forthcoming, Health Economics.

4.Li, Feng and Li Gan. “The Effect of Replacing the Two-Exam System with One-Exam System in the College Entrance Exam in China.” Forthcoming, Singapore Economic Review.

5.Gan, Li, Gaoshen Ju, and Xi Zhu. “Estimation of Labor Supply and Exact Welfare Change under Flexible Preferences and Generalized Piecewise-Linear Budgets.” Forthcoming, Journal of Econometrics.

6.Zhang, Shuoxun, Li Gan, and Tarun Sabarwal, “Strategic and Non-Strategic: The Role of Financial Benefit in Bankruptcy.” Economic Inquiry, Volume 53, issue 2, April 2015: pp1004-1008.

7.Zhang, Jing, Li Gan, Colin Lixin Xu, and Yang Yao. “Health Shocks, Village Elections, and Long- Term Income: Evidence from Rural China.” NBER Working Paper #12686. Forthcoming, China Economic Review.

8.Gan, Li, and Dayong Zhang, “Economic and Financial Challenges and Issues in the Asia- Pacific Countries: Guest Editors’ Introduction.” Forthcoming, Emerging Market Finance and Trade.

9.Dong, Yan, Li Gan, and Yingning Wang. “Residential mobility, neighborhood effects, and education attainment of blacks and whites.” Econometric Review, Vol 34, Issues 6-10, 2015.

10.Gan, Li, Guan Gong, Michael Hurd, and Daniel McFadden. “Individual Subjective Survival Curves and Bequests.” NBER Working Paper Series #10789. Forthcoming, Journal of Econometrics.

11.Fullerton, Don, Li Gan, and Miwa Hattori. “A Model to Evaluate Vehicle Emission Incentive Policies in Japan.” Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Volume 17, Issue 1, January 2015: pp 79-108.

12.Gan, Li, Cheng Hsiao, and Shu Xu. “Model Specification Test with Correlated but Not- Cointegrated Non-Stationary Variables.” Journal of Econometrics, January, 2014: 80-85.

13.Feng, Ye, Don Fullerton, and Li Gan. “Vehicle Choices, Miles Driven, and Pollution Policies.” Journal of Regulatory Economics, May 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11149-013-9221-z#page-1 

14.Gan, Li, Cheng Hsiao, and Shu Xu. “Model Specification Test with Correlated but Not-Cointegrated Non-Stationary Variables.” Journal of Econometrics, in press.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304407613001589 

15.Gan, Li and Manuel A. Hernandez, “Making friends with your neighbors? Agglomeration and tacit collusion in the lodging industry.” Review of Economics and Statistics, July 2013, 95(3): 1002-1017

16.Gan, Li, and Wen-Yao Wang. “Partial Deposit Insurance and Moral Hazard in Banking System.” International Journal of Commerce and Management, Vol. 23, Iss: 1, pp 8-23

17.Gan, Li, Colin Lixin Xu, and Yang Yao. “Consumption Insurance and Local Elections: Evidence from Chinese Villages.” Economics of Transition, Volume 20, Issue 3, pages 521-547. July 2012.

18.Gan, Li, Jaeun Shin, and Qi Li. “Initial Wage, Human Capital, and Post-wage Differentials.” Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, Vol 51, Dec 2010, pages 23-42.

19.Jia, Nan, and Li Gan. “Heterogeneous Production Functions and Regional Disparity.” China Economic Review, Vol 21, September 2010, pages S12-S19.

20.Gan, Li, Zhichao Yin, and Wenbin Zang. “The Impact of Housing Reform on Durables Consumption in China.” China Economic Review, Vol 21, September 2010, pages S55-S64.

21.Gan, Li, Roberton Williams III, and Thomas Wiseman. “A Simple Model of Optimal Hate Crime Legislation.” Economic Inquiry, August, 2010. Best Paper of the Year (published in Economic Inquiry)

22.Ai, Chunrong, and Li Gan. “An Alternative Root-N Consistent Estimator for Panel Data Binary Choice Models.” Journal of Econometrics, Volume 157, Issue 1, July 2010: 93-100.

23.Gan, Li, Guan Gong, and Michael Hurd. “Net Intergenerational Transfers from an Increase in Social Security Benefits.” In Dimitri Papadimitriou, ed., Government Spending on the Elderly, Palgrave Publishing, 2007: 178-188.

24.Gan, Li, Dong Li, and Shunfeng Song. “Is the Zipf’s Law Spurious in Explaining City-Size Distribution?” Economics Letters 92 (2006): 256-262.

25.Gan, Li and Qinghua Zhang. “The Thick Market Effect of Local Unemployment Rate Fluctuations.” Journal of Econometrics 133(2006): 127-152.

26.Fullerton, Don, and Li Gan. “Cost Effective Policies to Reduce Vehicle Emissions.” American Economic Review, May, 2005: 300-304. 

27.Chung, Jeff, and Li Gan. “Empirical Estimates of Effect of Price Limits on Limit-Hitting Days.” Econometrics Journal 8, (2005): 79-96.

28.Gan, Li, Michael Hurd, and Daniel McFadden. “Individual Subjective Survival Curves.” In David Wise, ed., Analyses in Economics of Aging. The University of Chicago Press, 2005: 377-411.

29.Fullerton, Don and Li Gan. “A Simulation-Based Welfare Loss Calculation for Labor Taxes with Piecewise-Linear Budgets.” Journal of Public Economics 88, (2004): 2339-59.

30.Gan, Li, and Victoria Vernon. “Testing the Barten Model of Economies of Scale in Household Consumption: Toward Resolving a Paradox of Deaton and Paxson.” Journal of Political Economy 111(6), (2003): 1361-77.

31.Chand, Harish, and Li Gan. “The Effect of Bracketing in Wealth Estimation.” Review of Income and Wealth 49(2), (June 2003): 273-87.

32.Gan, Li. “The Uncertain Fair-Wage Effort Hypothesis and Wage Secrecy.” Topics in Economic Analysis and Policy 2(1), (2002): 1-15.

33.Gan, Li, and Jiming Jiang. “A Test for Global Maximum.” Journal of American Statistical Association (JASA) 94(447), (September 1999): 847-54.

34. Skaperdas, Stergios, and Li Gan. “Risk Aversion in Contests.” The Economic Journal. 105(431), (July 1995): 951-62.

35.Hurd, Michael, Daniel McFadden, Harish Chand, Li Gan, Angela Merrill, and Michael Roberts. “Consumption and Saving Balances of the Elderly: Experimental Evidence on Survey Response Bias.” In David Wise, ed., Topics in the Economics of Aging, The University of Chicago Press, 1998: 353-87.

36.Hurd, Michael, Daniel McFadden, and Li Gan. “Subjective Survival Curves and Life Cycle Saving Behavior.” In David Wise, ed., Inquiries in the Economics of Aging. The University of Chicago Press, 1998: 259-305.

中文论文

1. 马双、孟宪芮、甘犁. 养老保险企业缴费对员工工资、就业的影响分析[J],《经济学季刊》,2014年4月:969-1000.

2. 贾男,甘犁,张劼.工资率、生育陷进与不可观测类型[J],《经济研究》,2013年5月.

3. 甘犁,尹志超,贾男,徐舒,马双. 中国家庭资产状况及住房需求分析[J],《金融研究, 2013年4月: 1-20.

4. 马双,甘犁. 最低工资对企业在职培训的影响分析[J],《经济学(季刊)》,2013年10月.

5. 黄枫,甘犁. 医疗保险中的道德风险研究——基于微观数据的分析[J]. 金融研究, 2012年5月: 193-206.

6. 贾男,张亮亮,甘犁. 不确定性下农村家庭食品消费的“习惯形成”检验[J]. 经济学季刊, 2012年1月: 327-348.

7. 马双,徐舒,甘犁. 缩小收入差距:最低工资制度作用有限[N].中国社会科学报, 2011年11月17日.

8. 徐舒,李涵,甘犁. 市场竞争与中国民航机票定价[J]. 经济学季刊, 2011年2月:  635-652.

9. 尹志超,甘犁. 信息不对称、企业异质性与信贷风险[J]. 经济研究, 2011年9月: 121-132.

10. 甘犁,刘国恩,马双. 基本医疗保险对促进家庭消费的影响[J]. 经济研究》, 2010年增刊: 30-38.

11. 贾男,甘犁. 中国医疗体制改革评价与展望论坛综述[J]. 经济研究, 2010年11月: 152-155.

12. 尹志超,甘犁. 香烟、美酒和收入[J]. 经济研究,2010年10月: 90-100.

13. 李凤,甘犁,杨小玲. 高考志愿填报时间和录取机制研究[J]. 教育研究, 2010年10月: 53-59.

14. 马双,臧文斌,甘犁. 新型农村合作医疗保险对农村居民食物消费的影响分析[J]. 经济学季刊, 2011年1月: 249-270.

15. 黄枫,甘犁. 过度需求还是有效需求——城镇老人健康与医疗保险的实证分析[J]. 经济研究, 2010年6月: 105-119.

16. 邓国营,甘犁,吴耀国. 房地产市场是否存在“反应过度”[J]. 管理世界, 2010年6月: 41-49.

17. 尹志超,甘犁. 中国住房改革对家庭耐用品消费的影响[J]. 经济学季刊,2010年第1期: 53-72.

18. 马双,甘犁,高香花. “收入冲击”对家庭营养结构的影响分析——来自高等教育改革的“自然实证”[J]. 《管理世界,2009年5月: 47-55.

19. 尹志超,甘犁. 公共部门和非公共部门工资差异的实证研究[J]. 经济研究, 2009年4月: 129-140.

20. 山立威,甘犁,郑涛. 公司捐款与经济动机——汶川地震后中国上市公司捐款的实证研究[J]. 经济研究, 2008年11月: 51-61.

21. 甘犁,徐立新,姚洋. 村庄治理、融资和消费保险:来自8省49村的经验证据[J]. 中国农村观察,2007年2月: 2-13.

22. 贾男,甘犁. 生产函数异质性与地区差距[J]. 南开经济研究, 2010年1月: 19-35.

23. 杨小玲,李凤,甘犁. 文理分科对高考录取公平性的影响——基于上线考生数据的实证分析[J]. 教育发展研究, 2011年10月: 51-56.

学术著作

1. Gan, Li, Zhchao Yin, Nan Jia, Shu Xu, Shuang Ma, and Lu Zheng (2013) “Data you need to know about China: Research Report of China Household Finance Survey.” Springer. http://www.springer.com/economics/financial+economics/book/978-3-642-38150-8

2. 甘犁、李运,中国农村家庭金融发展报告[M]. 成都:西南财经大学出版社,2014.

3. 甘犁、尹志超、谭继军,中国家庭金融调查报告2014[M]. 成都:西南财经大学出版社,2014.

4. 甘犁、尹志超、贾男、徐舒、马双,中国家庭金融调查报告2012[M]. 成都:西南财经大学出版社,2012.

政策报告

1.《中国家庭信贷可得性专题报告》获中国人民银行行长周小川,副行长潘功胜、刘士余批示(2014年1月

2.《关于对中国家庭金融调查有关情况的报告》由中国人民银行以金融情况专报(第35期总第608期))方式报送李克强、张高丽、汪洋马凯、杨晶等领导(2014年7月)

3.《2014年第三季度宏观经济报告》《2014年中国家庭资产季度报告(第三季度》《2015年第一季度宏观经济报告》《2015年第二季度宏观经济形势分析报告》等系列季度报告国务院研究室主任宁吉喆批示

4.《关于将住房空置率作为我国房地产市场风险监控指标的建议》,国家发改委信息(第1476期)

工作论文

1. Gan, Li and Feng Huang. “Impact of China’s Urban Employees Basic Medical Insurance on Health Care Expenditure and Health Outcome.” Revision submitted to Health Economics.

2. Gan, Li, Gaosheng Ju, and Siyi Zhu. “The Decline of Interstate Family Migration in the United States.” Submitted.

3. Shuang Ma, Li Gan, and Manuel Hernandez. “Minimum Wage and Firm Export Behavior.” Working Paper. Submitted.

4. Gan, Li, Manuel A. Hernandez, and Yanyan Liu, “Group Lending with Heterogeneous Types.” NBER Working Paper #18847, submitted.

5. Wu, Xi, and Li Gan. “Multiple Dimensions of Private Information in Life Insurance Markets.” NBER Working Paper #19629, submitted.

6. Li, Feng and Li Gan. “The Effect of Replacing the Two-Exam System with One-Exam System in the College Entrance Exam in China.” Submitted.

7. Gan, Li, and Qinghua Zhang. “The Market Thickness and the Impact of Unemployment on Housing Market Outcomes.” Revision submitted to Econometrica.

8. Gan, Li, and Qi Li. “Efficiency of Thin and Thick Markets.” NBER Working Paper #10815. Revision requested Journal of Econometrics.

9. Dong, Yan, Li Gan, and Yingning Wang. “Residential mobility, neighborhood effects, and education attainment of blacks and whites.” Revision submitted by Econometric Review.

10. Gan, Li, Colin Lixin Xu, and Yang Yao. “Health Shocks, Village Elections, and Long-Term Income: Evidence from Rural China.” NBER Working Paper #12686. Revision requested by China Economic Review.

11. Gan, Li, Guan Gong, Michael Hurd, and Daniel McFadden. “Individual Subjective Survival Curves and Bequests.” NBER Working Paper Series #10789. Revision requested by Journal of Econometrics.

12. Gan, Li, Manuel A. Hernandez, and Yanyan Liu, “Group Lending with Heterogeneous Types.” NBER Working Paper #18847, submitted.

13. Gan, Li and Gaoshen Ju. “Estimation of Labor Supply and Exact Welfare Change under Flexible Preferences and Generalized Piecewise-Linear Budgets.” Revision requested by Journal of Econometrics.

14. Deng, Guoying, Li Gan, and Manuel Hernandez. “Do people overreact? Evidence from the housing market after the Wenchuan Earthquake.” Working Paper.

15. Courtney Collins and Li Gan. “Does Sorting Students Improve Scores? An Analysis of Class Composition.” NBER Working Paper #18848. Submitted.

16. Li, Feng, Li Gan, and Xiaoling Yang. “The Effect of Replacing the Two-Exam System with One-Exam System in the College Entrance Exam in China.” Working Paper.

17. Gan, Li and Guan Gong. “Interdependence between Health and Education in a Dynamic Model.” NBER Working Paper #12830. Submitted.

18. Gan, Li and Jeremy Nighohossian. “Selecting into Efficiency in the US Hospital Market.” Working paper. Submitted.

19. Gan, Li, Tarun Sabarwal, and Shuoxun Zhang, “Strategic and Non-Strategic: The Role of Financial Benefit in Bankruptcy.” Submitted.

20. Gan, Li, Feng Huang, and Adalbert Mayer. “A Simple Test of Private Information in the Insurance Markets with Heterogeneous Insurance Demand.” NBER Working Paper # 16738.

21. Gan, Li and Xi Wu. “Private information in life insurance markets.” Working paper.

22. Gan, Li and Liwei Shan. “Incentives of Corporate Donations after the Wenchuan Earthquake in China.” Submitted

23. Fullerton, Don, Li Gan, and Miwa Hattori. “A Model to Evaluate Vehicle Emission Incentive Policies in Japan.” Submitted.

24. Gan, Li, Yingning Wang, and Zhichao Yin. “Smoking, Drinking, and Income.” Working paper.

25. Collins, Courtney and Li Gan. “Switching to Better Schools: A Model of Class Size and Mover Endogeneity.” Working paper.

26. Gan, Li, and Noelia Paez. “The Effects of Female Labor Market Participation on Fertility Spacing.” Working paper.

27. Gan, Li, and Shuang Ma. “Minimum wage and exports in China.” Working Paper.

28. Gan, Li and Shuang Ma. “The Effect of New Rural Cooperative Medical System on Household Food Consumption.” Working paper.

29. Gan, Li and Roberto Mosquera. “An Empirical Study of the Credit Market with Unobserved Consumer Types.” NBER Working Paper Series #13873.

30. Escobari, Diego, and Li Gan. “Price Dispersion under Costly Capacity and Demand Uncertainty.” NBER Working Paper #13075.

31. Gan, Li, and Tarun Sabarwal. “A Simple Test of Adverse Events and Strategic Timing Theories of Consumer Bankruptcy.” NBER Working Paper Series #11763.

32. Gan, Li, and Guan Gong. “Mortality Risk and Educational Attainment of Black and White Men.” NBER Working Paper #10381.

33. Gan, Li, and Feng Li. “Application Timing and Admission Mechanism in the National College Entrance Exam in China.” Working paper.

34. Gan, Li and Jijun Tan. “How Does the Optimal Two-Bracket Income Tax Depend on Wage Inequality.” Working Paper.

35. Gan, Li, Xiaojin Su, and Lin Zou. “Dynamics of Volume and Price: A New Approach.” Working Paper.


研究课题及资助编辑本段回目录

·   Dean’s Fellowship, University of Texas. Spring 2000

·   Faculty Research Grant, University of Texas. 2000-2001

·   Research Contract: Second-Best Control of Vehicle Emissions in U.S. and Japan. Economic and Social Research Institute of Japan, 2002-2004

Role: Co-PI (PI: D. Fullerton)

·   Research Contract: The Impact of Health Shocks on Household Welfare and the Effectiveness of Public Intervention in Rural China. World Bank Research Committee, 2003 -2005.

Role: Co-PI (PI: L.C. Xu)

·   P01 AG005842-150012 Improving Data Measurement in Surveys of the Elderly National Institute of Aging/National Bureau of Economic Research, 2000-2001

Role: PI for the subcontract (PI: D. McFadden)

·   R01 AG12921 Using Subjective Information to Explain Saving Decisions National Institute of Aging/National Bureau of Economic Research, 1996 -2003

Role: PI for the subcontract (PI: M. Hurd)

·   R03 HD046892 Endogenous Mortality Risk and Educational Attainment of Black and White Men. The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, January 2005-January 2007

Role: PI

·   China Household Finance Survey. The National 211 Project, Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, and the Agricultural Bank of China. Summer 2009

Role: PI

·   National Social Science Foundation of China

·   The Ministry of Education National 211 and 985 Projects at  Southwestern University of Finance and Economics

·   Beijing city government

·   Agricultural Bank of China

·   China PnR Corporation

·   Alibaba Corporation

·   Leshan Commercial Bank

担任匿名审稿人的期刊编辑本段回目录

·   American Economic Review

·   B.E. Journals in Economic Analysis and Policy

·   China Economic Review

·   Demography, Econometric Journal

·   Econometric Review

·   Econometric Theory

·   Economic Inquiry

·   Economics of Transition

·   Environmental and Planning A

·   European Economic Review

·   Health Economics

·   Industrial & Labor Relations Review

·   Journal of Business and Economic Statistics

·   Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics

·   Journal of Financial Econometrics

·   Journal of Law and Economics

·   Journal of Law and Economic Organization

·   Journal of Legal Studies

·   Journal of Political Economy

·   Journal of Population Economics

·   Journal of Productivity Analysis

·   Journal of Public Economics

·   Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering

·   IEEE Transaction on Information Theory

·   International Review of Finance

·   National Science Foundation

·   Review of Economics and Statistics

·   Review of Income and Wealth

·   Southern Economic Journal

·   Statistics in Medicine

·   Theoretical Population Biology

·   Urban Studies.

人物生平编辑本段回目录

奋发求索,博学多产

甘犁是一位兴趣广泛的学者,他以应用微观经济学为基础,研究涉及公共经济学、劳动经济学、发展经济学和工业组织等领域;他也是一位高产的学者,多篇学术论文及研究成果发表于《美国经济评论》(American Economic Review)、《政治经济学杂志》(Journal of Political Economy)、《计量经济学杂志》(Journal of Econometrics)、《公共经济学杂志》(Journal of Public Economics)、《美国统计协会杂志》(Journal of American Statistical Association)、 《经济学报》(The Economic Journal)、《计量经济学杂志》(Econometrics Journal)、《经济学快报》(Economics Letters)等国际顶尖经济学期刊上。

不同时期,甘犁都会产生一些新的研究兴趣和想法,于是他便用两、三年甚至更长的时间去钻研、探索,直到产生新的突破为止。不同领域之间的研究会相互交织、碰撞,产生启迪,激发灵感。有时,由此可以找到解决此前长期困扰、悬而未决问题的方法,而有时,即便经过大量艰辛努力,却依然无果。接下来他便给我们讲述了他研究中的几个实例。

一个例子是他最近正在研究的用计量经济学的方法区分具有异质性的人群。在保险市场上,人们熟知的逆向选择模型指出,由于保险的购买者具有私人信息,知道自己的健康状况和出险概率,于是,在保险价格既定的条件下,往往是那些健康状况差、出险概率高的人群购买意愿较强,而健康状况良好、出险概率较小的人群则倾向于不购买,因此,原来保险公司定价时所依据的出险概率在计算上存在偏差。而后来一些保险理论认为,购买保险的人具有异质性:一部分是自身健康状况不好,觉得自己出现几率比较大的人,另一部分则是自身健康状况良好,只不过因为特别厌恶风险,在任何情况下都倾向于购买保险的人。平时由于信息不对称,我们观察不到他们各自的类型,但甘犁和他的合作伙伴们通过计量方法的设计却能成功地在没有直接私人信息的情况下也能区分二者的类型。

另一个是计量经济学中的理论研究。在实际的教学和研究中,甘犁常常被一个问题所困扰:我们可以通过一阶导为零作为条件求出极大似然估计,但却无法区分这个估计是全局最优还是局部最优。难题激发了求知欲,他脑海中始终萦绕着这个问题,并尝试从各种不同角度思考。终于,他发现了解决办法:以两种方法计算方差矩阵,一种是用二阶导的方法,另一种是通过一阶导的平方来计算。结论是,若两种计算结果一致,则原估计为全局最优;若两者不相等,则原估计为局部最优。

再有一例可谓课题重大却至今仍然没有理论成果。这便是,将公平这一概念引入经济学中。现行经济学的基础是理性人假设,即人们会进行成本-收益分析,追求利润最大化。可社会却讲究公平和效率的权衡取舍,公平是一个不容忽视的社会经济问题。经济学家们做过了很多的尝试,典型的就是在人的效用函数中增加一个维度来描述“公平”,可这种方法仍然没有改变经济学以理性人假设为出发点的本质。这个问题长期困扰也同时吸引包括甘犁在内的一批学者,他们曾希望通过“无嫉妒条件(No envy condition)”将公平的概念引入经济学,但仍未成功。甘犁说,这个问题因为重大所以格外困难,但他并不畏惧,兴趣将始终促使他保持思考。

醉心学术,超然自得

在学术的道路上一路走来,甘犁觉得“怡然自得”。如今总结起来,主要有以下三个方面的感悟。

第一,学术难题激发思考,让每个投身学术的人都能忘情乐在其中。在很多人看来,学者的生活是异常枯燥的。与政界要人的日理万机、商界精英的叱咤风云不同,学者的一天常常是待在自己的三尺书屋里,掩面于书卷之间。除了和学生及合作伙伴有一些交流,更多时候是在远离尘嚣的冥思苦想中度过。同样在很多人看来,学者的生活是相对清贫的。美国大学的经济学博士毕业后,去业界赚钱最多,去高校任教薪水略低。然而,大部分学者都会淡泊自适,终身选择学术或教学生涯。究其原因,甘犁认为,思想自由驰骋的快乐是无价的。每当想到自己在某个课题上是世界上用心最多、研究最深者之一时,油然而生的成就感和愉悦感无法用金钱来衡量。甘犁也曾有很好的机会去业界工作,但他毫不犹豫地放弃了,为的就是这种相伴终生的思想上的富足感。

第二,学术殿堂百家争鸣,使每个热爱学术的人都可寻得一席之地。甘犁认为,学术环境宽松而自由,不一定在哈佛任教才是优秀的学者,也不一定只在《美国经济评论》发文才算对学术有贡献。一个学者可以选择在二、三流的大学教书,但仍孜孜不倦,上下求索;也可以选择任何一个问题进行研究,哪怕其分量不足以刊登在《美国经济评论》上,但仍可以为经济学的发展提供真知灼见,拥有自己的位置,享有自己的价值。

第三,做学术最重要的特质之一是好奇心。甘犁认为,学术成就发端于好奇心。好奇心虽不能缩短成功之路的跋涉距离,却足以使人心游万仞、披荆斩棘,最终迎接折桂时刻的到来。他鼓励在校生及早涉足学术研究领域,尝试自己提出问题、解决问题,若对学术充满好奇,便可考虑将其列为自己追寻一生的事业。

附件列表


→如果您认为本词条还有待完善,请 编辑词条

词条内容仅供参考,如果您需要解决具体问题
(尤其在法律、医学等领域),建议您咨询相关领域专业人士。
0

收藏到:  

词条信息

人物视界
人物视界
词条管理员
最近编辑者   
  • 浏览次数: 234 次
  • 编辑次数: 21次 历史版本
  • 更新时间: 2017-07-07

相关词条